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Gordon J. Freeman, PhD


Researcher


Researcher

  • Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
  • Adjunct, Department of Immunology and Virology

Centers/Programs

Contact Information

  • Office Phone Number(617) 632-4585
  • Fax(617) 632-5167

Bio

Dr. Freeman received his PhD from Harvard University in 1979 and also joined DFCI that year. He did postdoctoral training in the laboratory of Dr. Harvey Cantor and then with Dr. Lee Nadler. Principally involved in basic laboratory research, he has studied the B7-CD28 gene family, showing that B7-2/CD28 is the major costimulatory pathway for T cell activation and that PD-L1/PD-1 is the major coinhibitory pathway for T cell activation.

Recent Awards:

  • Damon Runyon-Walter Winchell Fellowship 1980
  • Fellowship, American Cancer Society 1982
  • Institute of Scientific Information highly cited researcher in Imunology 2003

Research

About the Freeman Lab

The Freeman Laboratory studies the contribution of costimulatory signals to the immune response. Following the discovery of PD-L1 and PD-L2 as the ligands for the PD-1 receptor on T cells, we demonstrated the inhibitory function of PD-L1 and PD-L2 on T cells and showed that blockade of this pathway enhanced T cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production. Further studies showed that PD-L1 is highly expressed by many solid tumors/hematological malignancies, and that blockade of PD-L1 enhances killing of PD-L1 positive targets by CD8 T cells. Recently, PD-1 blocking antibodies were approved by the FDA for the treatment of melanoma and lung cancer.

Our group also discovered the B7-1 and B7-2 molecules that bind to the costimulatory CD28 and coinhibitory CTLA-4 receptor and provide the critical costimulatory signal for full T cell activation, clonal expansion, and development of effector function through their interaction with CD28 on T cells. Following T cell activation, the B7-1–B7-2 interaction with CTLA-4, expressed on activated T cells, leads to down-regulation of T cell activation, whereas stimulation of the TCR alone leads to T cell clonal anergy. Thus, blockade of B7-1 and B7-2 can be used to establish antigen-specific tolerance for transplantation or the alleviation of autoimmunity.

Conversely, B7-1/B7-2 expression can stimulate an immune response, and the introduction of B7-1 or B7-2 into tumors can stimulate an anti-tumor response leading to tumor rejection and anti-tumor immunity. Recently, we have cloned two novel members of the B7 gene family, which bind to receptors expressed on activated T cells and further regulate the development of an immune response. Current studies focus on the function of these novel B7 genes and their interactions with the B7/CD28-CTLA-4 pathway.

Monitoring PD-1 phosphorylation to evaluate PD-1 signaling during anti-tumor immune responses. Cancer Immunol Res. 2021 Oct 11.
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PD-1 blockade and vaccination provide therapeutic benefit against SIV by inducing broad and functional CD8+ T cells in lymphoid tissue. Sci Immunol. 2021 Sep 10; 6(63):eabh3034.
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ULK1 inhibition overcomes compromised antigen presentation and restores antitumor immunity in LKB1 mutant lung cancer. Nat Cancer. 2021 May; 2(5):503-514.
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Emerging concepts in PD-1 checkpoint biology. Semin Immunol. 2021 May 15; 101480.
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Leukemia vaccine overcomes limitations of checkpoint blockade by evoking clonal T cell responses in a murine acute myeloid leukemia model. Haematologica. 2021 05 01; 106(5):1330-1342.
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Energy status dictates PD-L1 protein abundance and anti-tumor immunity to enable checkpoint blockade. Mol Cell. 2021 06 03; 81(11):2317-2331.e6.
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Spatial signatures identify immune escape via PD-1 as a defining feature of T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2021 03 11; 137(10):1353-1364.
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Association of Fusobacterium nucleatum with Specific T-cell Subsets in the Colorectal Carcinoma Microenvironment. Clin Cancer Res. 2021 May 15; 27(10):2816-2826.
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Epitope spreading toward wild-type melanocyte-lineage antigens rescues suboptimal immune checkpoint blockade responses. Sci Transl Med. 2021 02 17; 13(581).
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Therapeutically Increasing MHC-I Expression Potentiates Immune Checkpoint Blockade. Cancer Discov. 2021 Jun; 11(6):1524-1541.
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Inhibitory CD161 receptor identified in glioma-infiltrating T cells by single-cell analysis. Cell. 2021 03 04; 184(5):1281-1298.e26.
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VISTA: A Mediator of Quiescence and a Promising Target in Cancer Immunotherapy. Trends Immunol. 2021 03; 42(3):209-227.
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PD-1 blockade exacerbates Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in rhesus macaques. Sci Immunol. 2021 Jan 15; 6(55).
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PD-1 restraint of regulatory T cell suppressive activity is critical for immune tolerance. J Exp Med. 2021 01 04; 218(1).
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Concurrent Dexamethasone Limits the Clinical Benefit of Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Glioblastoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2021 01 01; 27(1):276-287.
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KIR3DL3 Is an Inhibitory Receptor for HHLA2 that Mediates an Alternative Immunoinhibitory Pathway to PD1. Cancer Immunol Res. 2021 02; 9(2):156-169.
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Expression of T-Cell Exhaustion Molecules and Human Endogenous Retroviruses as Predictive Biomarkers for Response to Nivolumab in Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2021 03 01; 27(5):1371-1380.
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Clonal tracing reveals diverse patterns of response to immune checkpoint blockade. Genome Biol. 2020 10 15; 21(1):263.
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Acetylation-dependent regulation of PD-L1 nuclear translocation dictates the efficacy of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. Nat Cell Biol. 2020 09; 22(9):1064-1075.
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The PD-1 Pathway Regulates Development and Function of Memory CD8+ T Cells following Respiratory Viral Infection. Cell Rep. 2020 06 30; 31(13):107827.
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Retinoblastoma protein expression and its predictors in triple-negative breast cancer. NPJ Breast Cancer. 2020 Jun 05; 6(1):19.
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Retinoblastoma protein expression and its predictors in triple-negative breast cancer. NPJ Breast Cancer. 2020; 6:19.
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Interplay of somatic alterations and immune infiltration modulates response to PD-1 blockade in advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Nat Med. 2020 06; 26(6):909-918.
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Inactivation of Fbxw7 Impairs dsRNA Sensing and Confers Resistance to PD-1 Blockade. Cancer Discov. 2020 09; 10(9):1296-1311.
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Interaction of SHP-2 SH2 domains with PD-1 ITSM induces PD-1 dimerization and SHP-2 activation. Commun Biol. 2020 03 17; 3(1):128.
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The importance of exosomal PDL1 in tumour immune evasion. Nat Rev Immunol. 2020 04; 20(4):209-215.
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Acidity changes immunology: a new VISTA pathway. Nat Immunol. 2020 01; 21(1):13-16.
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CDK7 Inhibition Potentiates Genome Instability Triggering Anti-tumor Immunity in Small Cell Lung Cancer. Cancer Cell. 2020 01 13; 37(1):37-54.e9.
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Programmed death ligand 2 - A link between inflammation and bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis. J Transl Autoimmun. 2020; 3:100028.
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Proliferating Transitory T Cells with an Effector-like Transcriptional Signature Emerge from PD-1+ Stem-like CD8+ T Cells during Chronic Infection. Immunity. 2019 12 17; 51(6):1043-1058.e4.
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Results of a Multicenter Phase II Study of Atezolizumab and Bevacizumab for Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma With Variant Histology and/or Sarcomatoid Features. J Clin Oncol. 2020 01 01; 38(1):63-70.
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Blockade of TIM-1 on the donor graft ameliorates graft-versus-host disease following hematopoietic cell transplantation. Blood Adv. 2019 11 12; 3(21):3419-3431.
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Metabolomic adaptations and correlates of survival to immune checkpoint blockade. Nat Commun. 2019 09 25; 10(1):4346.
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PTPN2 regulates the generation of exhausted CD8+ T cell subpopulations and restrains tumor immunity. Nat Immunol. 2019 10; 20(10):1335-1347.
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Immuno-PET identifies the myeloid compartment as a key contributor to the outcome of the antitumor response under PD-1 blockade. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 08 20; 116(34):16971-16980.
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PD-L1 Expression and Clinical Outcomes to Cabozantinib, Everolimus, and Sunitinib in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Analysis of the Randomized Clinical Trials METEOR and CABOSUN. Clin Cancer Res. 2019 10 15; 25(20):6080-6088.
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Author Correction: Cyclin D-CDK4 kinase destabilizes PD-L1 via cullin 3-SPOP to control cancer immune surveillance. Nature. 2019 Jul; 571(7766):E10.
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Intratumoral Activity of the CXCR3 Chemokine System Is Required for the Efficacy of Anti-PD-1 Therapy. Immunity. 2019 06 18; 50(6):1498-1512.e5.
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Immune Profiling and Quantitative Analysis Decipher the Clinical Role of Immune-Checkpoint Expression in the Tumor Immune Microenvironment of DLBCL. Cancer Immunol Res. 2019 04; 7(4):644-657.
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Blockade of RGMb inhibits allergen-induced airways disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019 07; 144(1):94-108.e11.
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Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy augments lenvatinib's efficacy by favorably altering the immune microenvironment of murine anaplastic thyroid cancer. Int J Cancer. 2019 05 01; 144(9):2266-2278.
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irRECIST for the Evaluation of Candidate Biomarkers of Response to Nivolumab in Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Analysis of a Phase II Prospective Clinical Trial. Clin Cancer Res. 2019 04 01; 25(7):2174-2184.
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A secreted PD-L1 splice variant that covalently dimerizes and mediates immunosuppression. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019 Mar; 68(3):421-432.
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PARP Inhibition Elicits STING-Dependent Antitumor Immunity in Brca1-Deficient Ovarian Cancer. Cell Rep. 2018 12 11; 25(11):2972-2980.e5.
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Successful Anti-PD-1 Cancer Immunotherapy Requires T Cell-Dendritic Cell Crosstalk Involving the Cytokines IFN-? and IL-12. Immunity. 2018 12 18; 49(6):1148-1161.e7.
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Combinations of BRAF inhibitor and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody improve survival and tumour immunity in an immunocompetent model of orthotopic murine anaplastic thyroid cancer. Br J Cancer. 2018 11; 119(10):1223-1232.
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Arming an Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 with a Single-chain Fragment Variable Antibody against PD-1 for Experimental Glioblastoma Therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2019 01 01; 25(1):290-299.
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Combination anti-PD-1 and antiretroviral therapy provides therapeutic benefit against SIV. JCI Insight. 2018 09 20; 3(18).
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CD160 Stimulates CD8+ T Cell Responses and Is Required for Optimal Protective Immunity to Listeria monocytogenes. Immunohorizons. 2018 08 27; 2(7):238-250.
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Signatures of T cell dysfunction and exclusion predict cancer immunotherapy response. Nat Med. 2018 10; 24(10):1550-1558.
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BET Bromodomain Inhibition Cooperates with PD-1 Blockade to Facilitate Antitumor Response in Kras-Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Cancer Immunol Res. 2018 10; 6(10):1234-1245.
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Immune Checkpoint Blockade Restores HIV-Specific CD4 T Cell Help for NK Cells. J Immunol. 2018 08 01; 201(3):971-981.
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LSD1 Ablation Stimulates Anti-tumor Immunity and Enables Checkpoint Blockade. Cell. 2018 07 26; 174(3):549-563.e19.
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PD-L1 Binds to B7-1 Only In Cis on the Same Cell Surface. Cancer Immunol Res. 2018 08; 6(8):921-929.
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TSC2-deficient tumors have evidence of T cell exhaustion and respond to anti-PD-1/anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy. JCI Insight. 2018 04 19; 3(8).
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Role of PD-1 during effector CD8 T cell differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 05 01; 115(18):4749-4754.
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TIME (Tumor Immunity in the MicroEnvironment) classification based on tumor CD274 (PD-L1) expression status and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in colorectal carcinomas. Oncoimmunology. 2018; 7(7):e1442999.
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Dendritic Cell PD-L1 Limits Autoimmunity and Follicular T Cell Differentiation and Function. J Immunol. 2018 04 15; 200(8):2592-2602.
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Immune evasion mediated by PD-L1 on glioblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles. Sci Adv. 2018 03; 4(3):eaar2766.
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Preclinical investigation of combined gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy and immune checkpoint blockade in glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol. 2018 01 22; 20(2):225-235.
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Modeling tumor immunity of mouse glioblastoma by exhausted CD8+ T cells. Sci Rep. 2018 01 09; 8(1):208.
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T cell-targeting nanoparticles focus delivery of immunotherapy to improve antitumor immunity. Nat Commun. 2017 11 23; 8(1):1747.
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Cyclin D-CDK4 kinase destabilizes PD-L1 via cullin 3-SPOP to control cancer immune surveillance. Nature. 2018 01 04; 553(7686):91-95.
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Ex Vivo Profiling of PD-1 Blockade Using Organotypic Tumor Spheroids. Cancer Discov. 2018 02; 8(2):196-215.
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CDK4/6 Inhibition Augments Antitumor Immunity by Enhancing T-cell Activation. Cancer Discov. 2018 02; 8(2):216-233.
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Tumor PDCD1LG2 (PD-L2) Expression and the Lymphocytic Reaction to Colorectal Cancer. Cancer Immunol Res. 2017 11; 5(11):1046-1055.
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PD-1 Status in CD8+ T Cells Associates with Survival and Anti-PD-1 Therapeutic Outcomes in Head and Neck Cancer. Cancer Res. 2017 11 15; 77(22):6353-6364.
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Topological analysis reveals a PD-L1-associated microenvironmental niche for Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood. 2017 11 30; 130(22):2420-2430.
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Enhancing CD8+ T Cell Fatty Acid Catabolism within a Metabolically Challenging Tumor Microenvironment Increases the Efficacy of Melanoma Immunotherapy. Cancer Cell. 2017 09 11; 32(3):377-391.e9.
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Immune Escape in Breast Cancer During In Situ to Invasive Carcinoma Transition. Cancer Discov. 2017 10; 7(10):1098-1115.
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Soluble PD-L1 as a Biomarker in Malignant Melanoma Treated with Checkpoint Blockade. Cancer Immunol Res. 2017 06; 5(6):480-492.
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Labeling Extracellular Vesicles for Nanoscale Flow Cytometry. Sci Rep. 2017 05 12; 7(1):1878.
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In vivo imaging reveals a tumor-associated macrophage-mediated resistance pathway in anti-PD-1 therapy. Sci Transl Med. 2017 05 10; 9(389).
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Differential Expression of PD-L1 in High Grade T1 vs Muscle Invasive Bladder Carcinoma and its Prognostic Implications. J Urol. 2017 10; 198(4):817-823.
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Interleukin-17A Promotes Lung Tumor Progression through Neutrophil Attraction to Tumor Sites and Mediating Resistance to PD-1 Blockade. J Thorac Oncol. 2017 08; 12(8):1268-1279.
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Aspirin Use and Colorectal Cancer Survival According to Tumor CD274 (Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 1) Expression Status. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Jun 01; 35(16):1836-1844.
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PD-L1 on tumor cells is sufficient for immune evasion in immunogenic tumors and inhibits CD8 T cell cytotoxicity. J Exp Med. 2017 04 03; 214(4):895-904.
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Rescue of exhausted CD8 T cells by PD-1-targeted therapies is CD28-dependent. Science. 2017 03 31; 355(6332):1423-1427.
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Loss of PTEN Is Associated with Resistance to Anti-PD-1 Checkpoint Blockade Therapy in Metastatic Uterine Leiomyosarcoma. Immunity. 2017 02 21; 46(2):197-204.
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Proceedings of the third international molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) meeting. Cancer Causes Control. 2017 02; 28(2):167-176.
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Increased expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in human pituitary tumors. Oncotarget. 2016 Nov 22; 7(47):76565-76576.
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5-Fluorouracil upregulates cell surface B7-H1 (PD-L1) expression in gastrointestinal cancers. J Immunother Cancer. 2016; 4:65.
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Type 2 innate lymphoid cell suppression by regulatory T cells attenuates airway hyperreactivity and requires inducible T-cell costimulator-inducible T-cell costimulator ligand interaction. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 May; 139(5):1468-1477.e2.
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Defining CD8+ T cells that provide the proliferative burst after PD-1 therapy. Nature. 2016 09 15; 537(7620):417-421.
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Synergy of radiotherapy and PD-1 blockade in Kras-mutant lung cancer. JCI Insight. 2016 06 16; 1(9):e87415.
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Immune Profiling of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: PD-L2 Expression and Associations with Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes. Cancer Immunol Res. 2016 08; 4(8):679-87.
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Programmed death ligand-1 expression on donor T cells drives graft-versus-host disease lethality. J Clin Invest. 2016 07 01; 126(7):2642-60.
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Correlation of Apobec Mrna Expression with overall Survival and pd-l1 Expression in Urothelial Carcinoma. Sci Rep. 2016 06 10; 6:27702.
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Chimeric antigen receptor T cells secreting anti-PD-L1 antibodies more effectively regress renal cell carcinoma in a humanized mouse model. Oncotarget. 2016 Jun 07; 7(23):34341-55.
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Nivolumab in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hematologic Malignancy: Preliminary Results of a Phase Ib Study. J Clin Oncol. 2016 08 10; 34(23):2698-704.
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Abundant PD-L1 expression in Epstein-Barr Virus-infected gastric cancers. Oncotarget. 2016 May 31; 7(22):32925-32.
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Coinhibitory Pathways in the B7-CD28 Ligand-Receptor Family. Immunity. 2016 05 17; 44(5):955-72.
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Learning from PD-1 Resistance: New Combination Strategies. Trends Mol Med. 2016 06; 22(6):448-451.
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Tumour CD274 (PD-L1) expression and T cells in colorectal cancer. Gut. 2017 08; 66(8):1463-1473.
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PD-L1 and PD-L2 Genetic Alterations Define Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma and Predict Outcome. J Clin Oncol. 2016 08 10; 34(23):2690-7.
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Genetic Basis for PD-L1 Expression in Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Cervix and Vulva. JAMA Oncol. 2016 Apr; 2(4):518-22.
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Expression of Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) in Histiocytic and Dendritic Cell Disorders. Am J Surg Pathol. 2016 Apr; 40(4):443-53.
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Combining BRAF inhibitor and anti PD-L1 antibody dramatically improves tumor regression and anti tumor immunity in an immunocompetent murine model of anaplastic thyroid cancer. Oncotarget. 2016 Mar 29; 7(13):17194-211.
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Coinhibitory Pathways in Immunotherapy for Cancer. Annu Rev Immunol. 2016 05 20; 34:539-73.
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Repulsive Guidance Molecule b (RGMb) Is Dispensable for Normal Gonadal Function in Mice. Biol Reprod. 2016 Apr; 94(4):78.
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Prevalence and predictors of androgen receptor and programmed death-ligand 1 in BRCA1-associated and sporadic triple-negative breast cancer. NPJ Breast Cancer. 2016; 2:16002.
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Adaptive resistance to therapeutic PD-1 blockade is associated with upregulation of alternative immune checkpoints. Nat Commun. 2016 Feb 17; 7:10501.
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Immunogenic Chemotherapy Sensitizes Tumors to Checkpoint Blockade Therapy. Immunity. 2016 Feb 16; 44(2):343-54.
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STK11/LKB1 Deficiency Promotes Neutrophil Recruitment and Proinflammatory Cytokine Production to Suppress T-cell Activity in the Lung Tumor Microenvironment. Cancer Res. 2016 Mar 01; 76(5):999-1008.
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LLT1 and CD161 Expression in Human Germinal Centers Promotes B Cell Activation and CXCR4 Downregulation. J Immunol. 2016 Mar 01; 196(5):2085-94.
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Blockade of Tim-1 and Tim-4 Enhances Atherosclerosis in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016 Mar; 36(3):456-65.
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Targetable genetic features of primary testicular and primary central nervous system lymphomas. Blood. 2016 Feb 18; 127(7):869-81.
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Identification of the Cell-Intrinsic and -Extrinsic Pathways Downstream of EGFR and IFN? That Induce PD-L1 Expression in Head and Neck Cancer. Cancer Res. 2016 Mar 01; 76(5):1031-43.
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Expression of PD-1 and Its Ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, in Smokers and Never Smokers with KRAS-Mutant Lung Cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2015 Dec; 10(12):1726-35.
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Glioblastoma Eradication Following Immune Checkpoint Blockade in an Orthotopic, Immunocompetent Model. Cancer Immunol Res. 2016 Feb; 4(2):124-35.
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PD-L1 Antibodies to Its Cytoplasmic Domain Most Clearly Delineate Cell Membranes in Immunohistochemical Staining of Tumor Cells. Cancer Immunol Res. 2015 Dec; 3(12):1308-15.
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MicroRNA MIR21 and T Cells in Colorectal Cancer. Cancer Immunol Res. 2016 Jan; 4(1):33-40.
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Deletion of CTLA-4 on regulatory T cells during adulthood leads to resistance to autoimmunity. J Exp Med. 2015 Sep 21; 212(10):1603-21.
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Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal carcinoma tissue and patient prognosis. Gut. 2016 12; 65(12):1973-1980.
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BTLA expression declines on B cells of the aged and is associated with low responsiveness to the trivalent influenza vaccine. Oncotarget. 2015 Aug 14; 6(23):19445-55.
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Fusobacterium nucleatum and T Cells in Colorectal Carcinoma. JAMA Oncol. 2015 Aug; 1(5):653-61.
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Combination cancer immunotherapy and new immunomodulatory targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2015 Aug; 14(8):561-84.
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Defective TFH Cell Function and Increased TFR Cells Contribute to Defective Antibody Production in Aging. Cell Rep. 2015 Jul 14; 12(2):163-71.
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Epithelial PD-L2 Expression Marks Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma. Cancer Immunol Res. 2015 Oct; 3(10):1123-1129.
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Differential Expression of PD-L1 between Primary and Metastatic Sites in Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma. Cancer Immunol Res. 2015 Oct; 3(10):1158-64.
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A New B7:CD28 Family Checkpoint Target for Cancer Immunotherapy: HHLA2. Clin Cancer Res. 2015 May 15; 21(10):2201-3.
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The Next Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors: PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade in Melanoma. Clin Ther. 2015 Apr 01; 37(4):764-82.
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PD-1 alters T-cell metabolic reprogramming by inhibiting glycolysis and promoting lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation. Nat Commun. 2015 Mar 26; 6:6692.
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B7-H3 expression in donor T cells and host cells negatively regulates acute graft-versus-host disease lethality. Blood. 2015 05 21; 125(21):3335-46.
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Biologic Activity of Autologous, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Secreting Alveolar Soft-Part Sarcoma and Clear Cell Sarcoma Vaccines. Clin Cancer Res. 2015 Jul 15; 21(14):3178-86.
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Increased expression of the immune modulatory molecule PD-L1 (CD274) in anaplastic meningioma. Oncotarget. 2015 Mar 10; 6(7):4704-16.
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ICOS:ICOS-ligand interaction is required for type 2 innate lymphoid cell function, homeostasis, and induction of airway hyperreactivity. Immunity. 2015 Mar 17; 42(3):538-51.
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Interferon-?-induced activation of JAK1 and JAK2 suppresses tumor cell susceptibility to NK cells through upregulation of PD-L1 expression. Oncoimmunology. 2015 Jun; 4(6):e1008824.
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Programmed death ligand-1 expression in adrenocortical carcinoma: an exploratory biomarker study. J Immunother Cancer. 2015; 3:3.
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Orchestration and Prognostic Significance of Immune Checkpoints in the Microenvironment of Primary and Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2015 Jul 01; 21(13):3031-40.
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Novel roles of c-Met in the survival of renal cancer cells through the regulation of HO-1 and PD-L1 expression. J Biol Chem. 2015 Mar 27; 290(13):8110-20.
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Nef promotes evasion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells from the CTLA-4-mediated inhibition of T-cell activation. J Gen Virol. 2015 Jun; 96(Pt 6):1463-1477.
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The microsatellite instable subset of colorectal cancer is a particularly good candidate for checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Cancer Discov. 2015 Jan; 5(1):16-8.
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PD-1 blockade with nivolumab in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jan 22; 372(4):311-9.
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Expression of programmed cell death 1 ligand 2 (PD-L2) is a distinguishing feature of primary mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma and associated with PDCD1LG2 copy gain. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014 Dec; 38(12):1715-23.
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Checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy targets tumour-specific mutant antigens. Nature. 2014 Nov 27; 515(7528):577-81.
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OX40- and CD27-mediated costimulation synergizes with anti-PD-L1 blockade by forcing exhausted CD8+ T cells to exit quiescence. J Immunol. 2015 Jan 01; 194(1):125-133.
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CD161 defines a transcriptional and functional phenotype across distinct human T cell lineages. Cell Rep. 2014 Nov 06; 9(3):1075-88.
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Immunotherapy advances for glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol. 2014 Nov; 16(11):1441-58.
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Interplay between regulatory T cells and PD-1 in modulating T cell exhaustion and viral control during chronic LCMV infection. J Exp Med. 2014 Aug 25; 211(9):1905-18.
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Comment on "Tim-3 directly enhances CD8 T cell responses to acute Listeria monocytogenes infection". J Immunol. 2014 Jul 15; 193(2):467.
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Immune checkpoint blockade for glioblastoma: preclinical activity of single agent and combinatorial therapy. Neuro Oncol. 2014 Jul; 16 Suppl 3:iii11-iii12.
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Increased T follicular helper cells and germinal center B cells are required for cGVHD and bronchiolitis obliterans. Blood. 2014 Jun 19; 123(25):3988-98.
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Loss of Lkb1 and Pten leads to lung squamous cell carcinoma with elevated PD-L1 expression. Cancer Cell. 2014 May 12; 25(5):590-604.
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Response to BRAF inhibition in melanoma is enhanced when combined with immune checkpoint blockade. Cancer Immunol Res. 2014 Jul; 2(7):643-54.
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RGMb is a novel binding partner for PD-L2 and its engagement with PD-L2 promotes respiratory tolerance. J Exp Med. 2014 May 05; 211(5):943-59.
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Inclusion of CD80 in HSV targets the recombinant virus to PD-L1 on DCs and allows productive infection and robust immune responses. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e87617.
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Dual blockade of PD-1 and CTLA-4 combined with tumor vaccine effectively restores T-cell rejection function in tumors--response. Cancer Res. 2014 Jan 15; 74(2):633-4; discussion 635.
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Differential impact of PD-1 and/or interleukin-10 blockade on HIV-1-specific CD4 T cell and antigen-presenting cell functions. J Virol. 2014 Mar; 88(5):2508-18.
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PD-1 blockade in chronically HIV-1-infected humanized mice suppresses viral loads. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77780.
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Liver environment and HCV replication affect human T-cell phenotype and expression of inhibitory receptors. Gastroenterology. 2014 Feb; 146(2):550-61.
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Activation of the PD-1 pathway contributes to immune escape in EGFR-driven lung tumors. Cancer Discov. 2013 Dec; 3(12):1355-63.
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Host programmed death ligand 1 is dominant over programmed death ligand 2 expression in regulating graft-versus-host disease lethality. Blood. 2013 Oct 24; 122(17):3062-73.
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DEC-205-mediated antigen targeting to steady-state dendritic cells induces deletion of diabetogenic CD8? T cells independently of PD-1 and PD-L1. Int Immunol. 2013 Nov; 25(11):651-60.
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Immunotherapy of chronic hepatitis C virus infection with antibodies against programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Sep 10; 110(37):15001-6.
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Therapeutic PD-1 pathway blockade augments with other modalities of immunotherapy T-cell function to prevent immune decline in ovarian cancer. Cancer Res. 2013 Dec 01; 73(23):6900-12.
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PD-L1 blockade synergizes with IL-2 therapy in reinvigorating exhausted T cells. J Clin Invest. 2013 Jun; 123(6):2604-15.
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PD-L1 expression is characteristic of a subset of aggressive B-cell lymphomas and virus-associated malignancies. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Jul 01; 19(13):3462-73.
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T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 deficiency eliminates airway hyperreactivity triggered by the recognition of airway cell death. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Aug; 132(2):414-25.e6.
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Dual blockade of PD-1 and CTLA-4 combined with tumor vaccine effectively restores T-cell rejection function in tumors. Cancer Res. 2013 Jun 15; 73(12):3591-603.
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CD160Ig fusion protein targets a novel costimulatory pathway and prolongs allograft survival. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e60391.
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TIM-family proteins promote infection of multiple enveloped viruses through virion-associated phosphatidylserine. PLoS Pathog. 2013 Mar; 9(3):e1003232.
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Inadequate T follicular cell help impairs B cell immunity during HIV infection. Nat Med. 2013 Apr; 19(4):494-9.
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Increased T-bet is associated with senescence of influenza virus-specific CD8 T cells in aged humans. J Leukoc Biol. 2013 Jun; 93(6):825-36.
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Down-regulation of CTLA-4 by HIV-1 Nef protein. PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e54295.
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Cell-intrinsic abrogation of TGF-ß signaling delays but does not prevent dysfunction of self/tumor-specific CD8 T cells in a murine model of autochthonous prostate cancer. J Immunol. 2012 Oct 15; 189(8):3936-46.
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Intact B7-H3 signaling promotes allograft prolongation through preferential suppression of Th1 effector responses. Eur J Immunol. 2012 Sep; 42(9):2343-53.
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CD40L-Tri, a novel formulation of recombinant human CD40L that effectively activates B cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2013 Feb; 62(2):347-57.
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PD-1 blockade during chronic SIV infection reduces hyperimmune activation and microbial translocation in rhesus macaques. J Clin Invest. 2012 May; 122(5):1712-6.
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Immune surveillance and therapy of lymphomas driven by Epstein-Barr virus protein LMP1 in a mouse model. Cell. 2012 Feb 17; 148(4):739-51.
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A new therapeutic strategy for malaria: targeting T cell exhaustion. Nat Immunol. 2012 Jan 19; 13(2):113-5.
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Antigen-specific CD4 T-cell help rescues exhausted CD8 T cells during chronic viral infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Dec 27; 108(52):21182-7.
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The programmed death-1 ligand 1:B7-1 pathway restrains diabetogenic effector T cells in vivo. J Immunol. 2011 Aug 01; 187(3):1097-105.
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Responsiveness of HIV-specific CD4 T cells to PD-1 blockade. Blood. 2011 Jul 28; 118(4):965-74.
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Acute depletion of activated memory B cells involves the PD-1 pathway in rapidly progressing SIV-infected macaques. J Clin Invest. 2010 Nov; 120(11):3878-90.
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Transcriptional analysis of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells shows that PD-1 inhibits T cell function by upregulating BATF. Nat Med. 2010 Oct; 16(10):1147-51.
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Regulation of T-cell chemotaxis by programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in dry eye-associated corneal inflammation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Jul; 51(7):3418-23.
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Targeting Tim-1 to overcome resistance to transplantation tolerance mediated by CD8 T17 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jun 30; 106(26):10734-9.
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Intestinal tolerance is converted to autoimmune enteritis upon PD-1 ligand blockade. J Immunol. 2009 Feb 15; 182(4):2102-12.
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Constitutive neuronal expression of the immune regulator, programmed death 1 (PD-1), identified during experimental autoimmune uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2009 Jan-Feb; 17(1):47-55.
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The PD-1/PD-L costimulatory pathway critically affects host resistance to the pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 19; 105(7):2658-63.
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The function of donor versus recipient programmed death-ligand 1 in corneal allograft survival. J Immunol. 2007 Sep 15; 179(6):3672-9.
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Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a natural ligand of hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), and the association of IgA with HAVCR1 enhances virus-receptor interactions. J Virol. 2007 Apr; 81(7):3437-46.
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Liver-infiltrating lymphocytes in chronic human hepatitis C virus infection display an exhausted phenotype with high levels of PD-1 and low levels of CD127 expression. J Virol. 2007 Mar; 81(6):2545-53.
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Reinvigorating exhausted HIV-specific T cells via PD-1-PD-1 ligand blockade. J Exp Med. 2006 Oct 02; 203(10):2223-7.
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Innate immunity in multiple sclerosis: myeloid dendritic cells in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis are activated and drive a proinflammatory immune response. J Immunol. 2006 Sep 15; 177(6):4196-202.
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Tyk2 negatively regulates adaptive Th1 immunity by mediating IL-10 signaling and promoting IFN-gamma-dependent IL-10 reactivation. J Immunol. 2006 Jun 15; 176(12):7263-71.
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Tissue expression of PD-L1 mediates peripheral T cell tolerance. J Exp Med. 2006 Apr 17; 203(4):883-95.
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Restoring function in exhausted CD8 T cells during chronic viral infection. Nature. 2006 Feb 09; 439(7077):682-7.
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Targeting of inducible costimulator (ICOS) expressed on alloreactive T cells down-regulates graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and facilitates engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow (BM). Blood. 2005 Apr 15; 105(8):3372-80.
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Endothelial expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 down-regulates CD8+ T cell activation and cytolysis. Eur J Immunol. 2003 Nov; 33(11):3117-26.
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Cutting edge: CD94/NKG2 is expressed on Th1 but not Th2 cells and costimulates Th1 effector functions. J Immunol. 2002 Nov 15; 169(10):5382-6.
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Differential expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2, ligands for an inhibitory receptor PD-1, in the cells of lymphohematopoietic tissues. Immunol Lett. 2002 Oct 21; 84(1):57-62.
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Protect the killer: CTLs need defenses against the tumor. Nat Med. 2002 Aug; 8(8):787-9.
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Antigen-specific regulatory T cells develop via the ICOS-ICOS-ligand pathway and inhibit allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity. Nat Med. 2002 Sep; 8(9):1024-32.
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Critical role of CD81 in cognate T-B cell interactions leading to Th2 responses. Int Immunol. 2002 May; 14(5):513-23.
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Th1-specific cell surface protein Tim-3 regulates macrophage activation and severity of an autoimmune disease. Nature. 2002 Jan 31; 415(6871):536-41.
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Identification of Tapr (an airway hyperreactivity regulatory locus) and the linked Tim gene family. Nat Immunol. 2001 Dec; 2(12):1109-16.
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Molecular cloning of Porimin, a novel cell surface receptor mediating oncotic cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Aug 14; 98(17):9778-83.
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Mouse inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS) expression is enhanced by CD28 costimulation and regulates differentiation of CD4+ T cells. J Immunol. 2000 Nov 01; 165(9):5035-40.
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Ex vivo generation of human anti-pre-B leukemia-specific autologous cytolytic T cells. Blood. 1997 Jul 15; 90(2):549-61.
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Role of the CD40 and CD95 (APO-1/Fas) antigens in the apoptosis of human B-cell malignancies. Br J Haematol. 1997 May; 97(2):409-17.
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B7.2 expressed by T cells does not induce CD28-mediated costimulatory activity but retains CTLA4 binding: implications for induction of antitumor immunity to T cell tumors. J Immunol. 1997 Mar 01; 158(5):2025-34.
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B7-1 and B7-2 have overlapping, critical roles in immunoglobulin class switching and germinal center formation. Immunity. 1997 Mar; 6(3):303-13.
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Breast cancer-associated antigen, DF3/MUC1, induces apoptosis of activated human T cells. Nat Med. 1996 Dec; 2(12):1367-70.
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Human CD100, a novel leukocyte semaphorin that promotes B-cell aggregation and differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Oct 15; 93(21):11780-5.
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Activation of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-infected T cells is independent of B7 costimulation. J Immunol. 1996 Oct 01; 157(7):2932-8.
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The role of B7-1/B7-2:CD28/CLTA-4 pathways in the prevention of anergy, induction of productive immunity and down-regulation of the immune response. Immunol Rev. 1996 Oct; 153:5-26.
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Differential association of protein tyrosine kinases with the T cell receptor is linked to the induction of anergy and its prevention by B7 family-mediated costimulation. J Exp Med. 1996 Aug 01; 184(2):365-76.
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Pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells may induce T-cell anergy to alloantigen. Blood. 1996 Jul 01; 88(1):41-8.
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Complete blockade of B7 family-mediated costimulation is necessary to induce human alloantigen-specific anergy: a method to ameliorate graft-versus-host disease and extend the donor pool. Blood. 1996 Jun 01; 87(11):4887-93.
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A cell type-specific enhancer in the human B7.1 gene regulated by NF-kappaB. J Exp Med. 1996 Mar 01; 183(3):777-89.
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B7-1 is superior to B7-2 costimulation in the induction and maintenance of T cell-mediated antileukemia immunity. Further evidence that B7-1 and B7-2 are functionally distinct. J Immunol. 1996 Feb 01; 156(3):1126-31.
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Differential expression of alternate mB7-2 transcripts. J Immunol. 1995 Dec 15; 155(12):5490-7.
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Follicular lymphomas can be induced to present alloantigen efficiently: a conceptual model to improve their tumor immunogenicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Aug 29; 92(18):8200-4.
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Role of B7-1 in mediating an immune response to myeloid leukemia cells. Blood. 1995 May 01; 85(9):2507-15.
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B7-1 and B7-2 do not deliver identical costimulatory signals, since B7-2 but not B7-1 preferentially costimulates the initial production of IL-4. Immunity. 1995 May; 2(5):523-32.
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CD40 ligand triggered interleukin-6 secretion in multiple myeloma. Blood. 1995 Apr 01; 85(7):1903-12.
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The critical role of CD28 signalling in the prevention of human T-cell anergy. Res Immunol. 1995 Mar-Apr; 146(3):140-9.
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CTLA4 mediates antigen-specific apoptosis of human T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jan 31; 92(3):811-5.
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Characterization of the murine B7-1 genomic locus reveals an additional exon encoding an alternative cytoplasmic domain and a chromosomal location of chromosome 16, band B5. J Immunol. 1994 Dec 01; 153(11):5038-48.
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Pivotal role of the B7:CD28 pathway in transplantation tolerance and tumor immunity. Blood. 1994 Nov 15; 84(10):3261-82.
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Prevention of T cell anergy by signaling through the gamma c chain of the IL-2 receptor. Science. 1994 Nov 11; 266(5187):1039-42.
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CD2 is involved in maintenance and reversal of human alloantigen-specific clonal anergy. J Exp Med. 1994 Nov 01; 180(5):1665-73.
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Blockade of the CD28 co-stimulatory pathway: a means to induce tolerance. Curr Opin Immunol. 1994 Oct; 6(5):797-807.
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Role of CD27 in T cell immune response. Analysis by recombinant soluble CD27. J Immunol. 1994 Aug 15; 153(4):1421-9.
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Expression cloning of a cDNA for human leukotriene C4 synthase, an integral membrane protein conjugating reduced glutathione to leukotriene A4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Aug 02; 91(16):7663-7.
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A negative regulatory function of B7 revealed in B7-1 transgenic mice. Immunity. 1994 Aug; 1(5):415-21.
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Murine B7-2, an alternative CTLA4 counter-receptor that costimulates T cell proliferation and interleukin 2 production. J Exp Med. 1993 Dec 01; 178(6):2185-92.
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Activated human B lymphocytes express three CTLA-4 counterreceptors that costimulate T-cell activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Dec 01; 90(23):11059-63.
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[Failing B7 costimulation engenders a peripheral clonal T-cell anergy in a human antigen-specific model]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1993 Nov 27; 123(47):2255-6.
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Cloning of B7-2: a CTLA-4 counter-receptor that costimulates human T cell proliferation. Science. 1993 Nov 05; 262(5135):909-11.
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Uncovering of functional alternative CTLA-4 counter-receptor in B7-deficient mice. Science. 1993 Nov 05; 262(5135):907-9.
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The 4F9 antigen is a member of the tetra spans transmembrane protein family and functions as an accessory molecule in T cell activation and adhesion. Cell Immunol. 1993 Nov; 152(1):249-60.
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B7 but not intercellular adhesion molecule-1 costimulation prevents the induction of human alloantigen-specific tolerance. J Exp Med. 1993 Nov 01; 178(5):1753-63.
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Human T-cell clonal anergy is induced by antigen presentation in the absence of B7 costimulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jul 15; 90(14):6586-90.
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Identification, by protein sequencing and gene transfection, of sgp-60 as the murine homologue of CD48. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Apr 15; 90(8):3418-22.
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Effects of cyclosporin A, FK 506, and mycalamide A on the activation of murine CD4+ T cells by the murine B7 antigen. Eur J Immunol. 1993 Jan; 23(1):283-6.
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Murine B7 antigen provides a sufficient costimulatory signal for antigen-specific and MHC-restricted T cell activation. J Immunol. 1992 Dec 15; 149(12):3802-8.
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CTLA-4 and CD28 mRNA are coexpressed in most T cells after activation. Expression of CTLA-4 and CD28 mRNA does not correlate with the pattern of lymphokine production. J Immunol. 1992 Dec 15; 149(12):3795-801.
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Early signaling defects in human T cells anergized by T cell presentation of autoantigen. J Exp Med. 1992 Jul 01; 176(1):177-86.
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Expression and function of the murine B7 antigen, the major costimulatory molecule expressed by peritoneal exudate cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 May 01; 89(9):4210-4.
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The gene for B7, a costimulatory signal for T-cell activation, maps to chromosomal region 3q13.3-3q21. Blood. 1992 Jan 15; 79(2):489-94.
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The HB-6, CDw75, and CD76 differentiation antigens are unique cell-surface carbohydrate determinants generated by the beta-galactoside alpha 2,6-sialyltransferase. J Cell Biol. 1992 Jan; 116(2):423-35.
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Murine B7 antigen provides an efficient costimulatory signal for activation of murine T lymphocytes via the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jan 01; 89(1):271-5.
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All advanced stage non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with a polymerase chain reaction amplifiable breakpoint of bcl-2 have residual cells containing the bcl-2 rearrangement at evaluation and after treatment. Blood. 1991 Dec 15; 78(12):3275-80.
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Immunologic purging of marrow assessed by PCR before autologous bone marrow transplantation for B-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 1991 Nov 28; 325(22):1525-33.
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Selective induction of B7/BB-1 on interferon-gamma stimulated monocytes: a potential mechanism for amplification of T cell activation through the CD28 pathway. Cell Immunol. 1991 Oct 15; 137(2):429-37.
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Structure, expression, and T cell costimulatory activity of the murine homologue of the human B lymphocyte activation antigen B7. J Exp Med. 1991 Sep 01; 174(3):625-31.
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B-cell surface antigen B7 provides a costimulatory signal that induces T cells to proliferate and secrete interleukin 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Aug 01; 88(15):6575-9.
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Follicular dendritic cells contain a unique gene repertoire demonstrated by single-cell polymerase chain reaction. Blood. 1991 Feb 15; 77(4):787-91.
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Definition of T-cell specific DNA-binding factors that interact with a 3'-silencer in the CD4+ T-cell gene Rpt-1. Gene. 1989 Dec 28; 85(2):461-9.
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Activation primes human B lymphocytes to respond to heat shock. J Exp Med. 1989 Nov 01; 170(5):1763-8.
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B7, a new member of the Ig superfamily with unique expression on activated and neoplastic B cells. J Immunol. 1989 Oct 15; 143(8):2714-22.
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Structural and functional studies of the early T lymphocyte activation 1 (Eta-1) gene. Definition of a novel T cell-dependent response associated with genetic resistance to bacterial infection. J Exp Med. 1989 07 01; 170(1):145-61.
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Isolated human follicular dendritic cells display a unique antigenic phenotype. J Exp Med. 1989 Jun 01; 169(6):2043-58.
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Interleukin 6 gene expression in normal and neoplastic B cells. J Clin Invest. 1989 May; 83(5):1512-8.
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Expression and regulation of CD5 on in vitro activated human B cells. Eur J Immunol. 1989 May; 19(5):849-55.
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Cloning and expression of a gamma-interferon-inducible gene in monocytes: a new member of a cytokine gene family. Int Immunol. 1989; 1(4):388-97.
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Studies of in vitro activated CD5+ B cells. Blood. 1989 Jan; 73(1):202-8.
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Pre-exposure of human B cells to recombinant IL-1 enhances subsequent proliferation. J Immunol. 1988 Nov 15; 141(10):3398-404.
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rpt-1, an intracellular protein from helper/inducer T cells that regulates gene expression of interleukin 2 receptor and human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Apr; 85(8):2733-7.
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B7, a B-cell-restricted antigen that identifies preactivated B cells. J Immunol. 1987 Nov 15; 139(10):3260-7.
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Cloning and characterization of a novel T cell activation gene. J Immunol. 1987 Nov 01; 139(9):3126-31.
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